First, the terminology to be defined:
Sin (Mortal & Venial)
Sin (Omission & Commission)
Ignorance (Vincible & Invincible)
Then the Questions:
1. What is "natural" about Natural Law, and what is the implication or conclusion we can draw from it?
2. What are some factors that can increase or lessen one's culpability?
3. How does the OIC process help determine the morality or immorality of an action?
4. What are three things we can do to help properly form our consciences?
5. Explain the difference between vincible and invincible ignorance and the impact it has on culpability.
Monday, June 18, 2012
1. What is the difference between discerning one’s vocation and deciding upon a career?
2. What can one do to increase his or her ability to discern the will of God? What are some of the obstacles we encounter in trying to do that?
3. What is the real vocation crisis facing the Church today?
4. What is the two-fold purpose of marriage?
5. What three characteristics must be in place for one to enter into a sacramental marriage?
6. What are the responsibilities of each of the three ranks of Holy Orders?
7. How is an annulment different from a divorce?
8. In what way is the family a “domestic church”?
Natural Family Planning
Thursday, June 14, 2012
1. Be able to identify the Form, Matter, Minister, & Properly disposed recipient.
2. Name and elaborate upon the effects of Confirmation on the Soul of the Recipient.
3. Explain how confirmation came to be separated from baptism in the life of an individual.
4. Describe the role of the sponsor in confirmation.
5. What is the primary flaw with the way confirmation is currently taught to young people? What is a more appropriate understanding of the sacrament?
6. What is the proper age to receive the sacrament of confirmation?
7. What are the Gifts & Fruits of the Holy Spirit?
Gifts of the Holy Spirit
Wednesday, June 13, 2012
1. Create an analogy for a sacrament: Identify the Form, the Matter, the Minister, the Properly Disposed Recipient, and the Graces of the analogous thing. (See notes for example from class.)
2. Why does the Church utilize a liturgical ritual for the celebration of the Sacraments? Why not simply let the priest create his own format or let the spirit move him, or “wing it”?
3. Why does the church utilize tangible, earthly things as part of religious rituals? Shouldn’t we be more concerned with our spirit?4. Our culture’s understanding of sacramental has almost transformed into superstition or “good luck charms”. How can we change that for the better?
1. Be able to identify the Form, Matter, Minister, & Properly disposed recipient.
2. Name and elaborate upon the effects of Baptism on the soul of the recipient.
3. Explain why Catholics retain the practice of the baptism of infants.
4. Describe the symbolic items presented during the rite of baptism and the significance of each.5. Why can baptism not be repeated? What would a Catholic response be to one’s claim of having been baptized multiple times?
Sacraments of Intiation
Grace (4 different types)
Tuesday, June 12, 2012
A. Read Chapter 14 in the Textbook
B. Write the Definitions of the Following Terms:
B. Write the Definitions of the Following Terms:
Liturgical Calendar / Year
C. Answer the following questions in complete sentences.
1. Why does the Catholic Church utilize a liturgical calendar?
2. What are some of the Liturgical reforms that followed Vatican II? What are some of the liturgical abuses that were done in the “Spirit of Vatican II”?
3. Despite all the decorations, trees, and parties, explain why it is inaccurate to call the first few weeks of December "Christmas Time".
4. Describe an action or even a public event that has a set pattern or routine to the way it takes place. Why does it follow the particular pattern or routine? How would the outcome of the action or event be different if the order were changed?
Saturday, June 9, 2012
Doctrine – an official teaching of the Church. Doctrinal beliefs do not change, but they may be elaborated upon or explained in new ways.
Dogma – a Church teaching which is considered part of Divine Revelation.
Encyclical – a circular letter written by a Pope and shared with all of the bishops, clergy, and Christian Faithful. In the last few decades encyclicals have been social in nature – addressing the whole world and the problems facing it.
Ecumenism – efforts on the part of leaders of different Christian denominations to work toward unity of belief or practice.
Laity – all the Christian faithful who have not received the sacrament of Holy Orders.
Consecrated life – a life set aside for service to God and man by professing vows. Typically consecrated individuals live in community with others and according to a particular Religious Rule.
Vows – binding promises or agreements such as those between a husband and wife, between a priest and his bishop, or between the member of a religious order and his or her superior.
Religious / diocesan – Religious Priests are members of a particular religious order whereas diocesan priests serve the Church within a particular diocese.
Deacon – a clergyman who is dedicated to charitable service. Catholic deacons can either be men who are in the final phase of preparation for the priesthood or men (even married men) who have secular jobs but are committed to ministry.
Priest – a clergyman ordained to celebrate the sacrifice of the mass, hear confessions, and celebrate other sacraments. Priests serve as pastors of parishes and fulfill other duties. They are co-workers with the bishops in serving the people of God.
Bishop – a clergyman ordained to the fullness of the priesthood, a bishop is the successor to the Apostles. His ministry is that of overseer or administrator of a diocese. He ensures unity within the diocese and with the universal Church.
College of cardinals – the group of advisors selected by the pope to assist him in the affairs of the Church. Upon the death of a pope, the cardinals gather at the Vatican, seek the guidance of the Holy Spirit, and select a new pope. Typically the new pope is himself one of the cardinals, and typically the cardinals are bishops, though neither of these is the rule.
Pope – the bishop of Rome, successor of St. Peter as head of the Universal Church, he is the Vicar of Christ on Earth.
Eschatology – The study of the End of Time or the “last things”, namely death, judgment, heaven, & hell.
Parousia – the second coming of Christ at the end of time to judge the living and the dead.
Pantocrator – the title of a particular style of image portraying Jesus as the Divine Lawgiver and Judge, it is usually a stern-faced Christ holding a book of the Gospels.
Communion of Saints – the union of all believers, past, present, and future – in the one Body of Christ. This union transcends space, time, and even death.
Veneration – the rightful respect that we show toward persons and sacred objects (relics, images, the book of the Gospels, etc.)
Worship – praise and adoration, this is reserved for God alone. To offer worship to anything other than God would be idolatry and a violation of the Commandments.
Purgatory – the state of purification of the soul that follows death. Purgatory is always a temporary state before the soul passes on to heaven. Guilt is forgiven by Christ, but temporal consequences of sin remain. It is during purgatory that the soul is purified of the consequences of one’s sinful actions.
Heaven – The ultimate spiritual happiness of fully seeing, knowing, and loving God for all eternity.
Hell – The state of eternal separation from God for those who refuse his mercy and forgiveness.
Final Judgment – the universal judgment of the souls of all the living and the dead at the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. (sometimes called general judgment)
Personal Judgment – the judgment of the individual soul by God immediately upon death. (sometimes called particular judgment)
Indulgence – the remission of the temporal consequences of sins (already forgiven). This remission flows from the charitable nature of the deed performed and the degree to which one performs it.
St. Ignatius of Antioch – a first Century bishop of Syria, ordained by St. Peter. He wrote a series of letters expounding upon the nature of the bishop and his role within the Church, Christian morality, and the grace of martyrdom. He was martyred at Rome in the early 2nd Century, being eaten by wild beasts.
Thursday, June 7, 2012
Pentecost – Originally a Jewish festival of thanksgiving for the harvest, it came 50 days after Passover. It was at the first Pentecost after Jesus’ Resurrection that the Holy Spirit descended upon the Apostles giving them courage and the ability to speak in different languages.
Gifts of the Holy Spirit – supernatural gifts that enable the recipient to respond to situations in accordance with God’s will.
Fruits of the Holy Spirit – visible effects of the Holy Spirit in the life of one who has received the gifts of the spirit and puts them to use.
Paraclete – a word meaning “advocate” or one who speaks for another or works on behalf of another. Jesus Christ referred to the Holy Spirit as the Paraclete.
Ghost – comes from the medieval English word for Spirit. Though we normally think of a ghost as a frightening or mean spirit, the word was once used commonly in reference to the Holy Spirit (the Holy Ghost.)
Ecclesiology – the study of the nature and mission of the Church.
Marks of the Church – Four Distinguishing Characteristics of the Church: One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic. (we will go over these in more detail in class).
Charism – a spiritual gift to equip one to fulfill a mission or purpose.
Infallibility – the belief that the Holy Spirit will prevent the Pope from teaching anything in error in regard to faith and morals. This protection is for the office of the papacy, not the private opinions of the person in that office.
Rite – a particular ritual –OR – a particular liturgical family within the Church. There are 5 major divisions with many subdivisions in each one.
Ecumenical Council – a gathering of all of the world’s bishops to discuss some crisis or controversy and, guided by the Holy Spirit, to articulate a response or solution.
Evangelization – Spreading the Gospel to those who have not yet heard it.
Catechesis – teaching the beliefs of the faith to its members.
Apologetics – defending the beliefs of the faith against those who would refute or attack them.
Wednesday, June 6, 2012
The Kingdom of God is the state of being when the will of God is universally obeyed. It is the mission of the Church to build up the Kingdom of God.
A parable is a short story about familiar things, but it contains an unexpected twist. Parables were used by Jesus to illustrate the Kingdom of God.
A miracle is an action that defies the laws of nature and reveals the power and majesty of God. Miracles demonstrate God’s power over Creation. They can include healing, feeding, exerting power over nature, exorcism, and resurrection.
An apostle is one who is sent on behalf of another. Apostles are given a mission to complete and the power or authority to carry it out.
A disciple is one who is a follower. Disciples model their lives after that of their master or teacher.
St. Francis was born in Italy toward the end of the 12th Century to a wealthy middle-class merchant. After a failed attempt to become a knight he experienced a conversion, dedicating his life to serving the poor. He founded an order to carry out this mission.
The Luminous mysteries are a series of meditations to accompany the prayers of the Rosary. These five meditations were created by Pope John Paul II to help shed light on the Public Ministry of Jesus Christ.
The Paschal Mystery is the series of events by which Christ saved humanity from sin and death:
Passion – his suffering at the hands of the soldiers & carrying the cross.
Death – his death on the Cross.
Resurrection – his triumph over death, rising on the third day.
Ascension – his rising up into heaven 40 days after the Resurrection.
Pharisees were one of the factions within Jewish culture at the time of Christ. Pharisees were scholars, studying all of the Laws of the Old Testament (over 600!). They were very strict in abiding by the Law. They also created a large body of additional laws not found in the Old Testament.
Sadducees were another one of the factions within Jewish culture at the time of Christ. Sadducees were committed to strictly following the Jewish laws, but rejected much of the Non-Biblical Tradition embraced by the Pharisees. Sadducees were a priestly class and held much influence over the Temple.
Zealots were a faction within Judaism that was looking for a great war between the Jews and the occupying Gentiles that would bring about the end of the world.
Essenes were a faction that withdrew from society and lived lives of fasting and prayer, waiting for the end of the world, which they thought was soon.
Passover was the Jewish festival commemorating the Angel of Death coming to the Egyptians and the Jews being spared by him “passing over” their homes. Jesus chose the celebration of the Passover to fulfill his ministry and inaugurate the New Covenant by his Paschal Mystery.
Typology is a way of reading and interpreting Sacred Scripture that identifies one figure or event as a precursor or foreshadowing a future figure or event. The original figure / event is called the archetype and the one that follows is said to be a “type” of the original. For example, Adam, Isaac, Moses, and Jonah are all Old Testament figures that serve as archetypes that are fulfilled in Christ who is said to be a type.